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Andrew Carnegie’s decision to help with library construction developed out of his own experience. Born in 1835, he spent his first 12 years while in the coastal city of Dunfermline, Scotland. There he listened to men read aloud and discuss books borrowed through the Tradesmen’s Subscription Library that his father, a weaver, had helped create. Carnegie began his formal education at age eight, but needed to stop after only 3 years. The rapid industrialization of this textile trade forced small businessmen like Carnegie’s father from business. Consequently, the family unit sold their belongings and immigrated to Allegheny, a suburb of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Andrew Carnegie’s decision to help with library construction developed out of his own experience. Born in 1835, he spent his first 12 years while in the coastal city of Dunfermline, Scotland. There he listened to men read aloud and discuss books borrowed through the Tradesmen’s Subscription Library that his father, a weaver, had helped create.fast-paper-editing.com/dissertation Carnegie began his formal education at age eight, but needed to stop after only 3 years. The rapid industrialization of this textile trade forced small businessmen like Carnegie’s father from business. Consequently, the family unit sold their belongings and immigrated to Allegheny, a suburb of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Although these new circumstances required the young Carnegie to go to work, his learning failed to end. After a year inside a textile factory, he was a messenger boy with the local telegraph company. A portion of his fellow messengers introduced him to Col. James Anderson of Allegheny, who every Saturday opened his personal library to any young worker who wished to borrow a guide. Carnegie later said the colonel opened the windows whereby the lighting of information streamed. In 1853, the moment the colonel’s representatives aimed to restrict the library’s use, Carnegie wrote a letter with the editor from the Pittsburgh Dispatch defending an appropriate of all the working boys have fun in the pleasures from the library. More essential, he resolved that, should he be wealthy, he would make similar opportunities available for other poor workers.

Across the next half-century Carnegie accumulated the fortune that could enable him to satisfy that pledge. Throughout his years being a messenger, Carnegie had taught himself the ability of telegraphy. This skill helped him make contacts while using Pennsylvania Railroad, where he attended work on age 18. During his 12-year railroad association he rose quickly, ultimately becoming superintendent with the Pennsylvania’s Pittsburgh division. He simultaneously invested in a variety of other businesses, including railroad locomotives, oil, and iron and steel. In 1865, Carnegie left the railroad to control the Keystone Bridge Company, that has been successfully replacing wooden railroad bridges with iron ones. By 1870s he was being focused on steel manufacturing, ultimately creating the Carnegie Steel Company. In 1901 he sold that business for $250 million.

Carnegie then retired and devoted the remainder of his life to philanthropy. Even before selling Carnegie Steel he had begun to consider how to deal with his immense fortune. In 1889 he wrote a famous essay entitled The Gospel of Wealth, where he stated that wealthy men should do without extravagance, provide moderately with regards to their dependents, and distribute the remainder of their riches to benefit the welfare and happiness of this common man–because of the consideration that will help solely those who would help themselves. The Very Best Fields for Philanthropy, his second essay, listed seven fields to which the wealthy should donate: universities, libraries, medical centers, public parks, meeting and concert halls, public baths, and churches. He later expanded this list to add gifts that promoted scientific research, the actual spread of knowledge, along with the promotion of world peace. Several organizations still this very day: the Carnegie Corporation in Nyc, one example is, helps support Sesame Street.

Owing to his background, Carnegie was particularly interested in public libraries. At some time he stated a library was the absolute best gift for your community, given it gave people the capability to improve themselves. His confidence was using the outcomes of similar gifts from earlier philanthropists. In Baltimore, by way of example, a library given by Enoch Pratt were utilised by 37,000 folks one full year. Carnegie believed the relatively small number of public library patrons were more value to their own community when compared to the masses who chose to not take advantage of the library.

Carnegie divided his donations to libraries directly into the retail and wholesale periods. All through the retail period, 1886 to 1896, he gave $1,860,869 for 14 endowed buildings in six communities in the usa. These buildings were actually community centers, containing recreational facilities including private pools and also libraries. While in the years after 1896, referred to as wholesale period, Carnegie not any longer supported urban multipurpose buildings. Instead he gave $39,172,981 to smaller communities who had limited a chance to access cultural institutions. His gifts provided 1,406 towns with buildings devoted exclusively to libraries. Over half his grants were cheaper than $10,000. Although the vast majority of towns receiving gifts were while in the Midwest, as a whole 46 states taken advantage of Carnegie’s plan.

Andrew Carnegie stopped making gifts for library construction following a report intended to him by Dr. Alvin Johnson, an economics professor. In 1916 Dr. Johnson visited 100 in the existing Carnegie libraries and studied their social significance, physical aspects, effectiveness, and financial condition. His final report concluded that for being really effective, the libraries needed trained personnel. Buildings was provided, the good news is the time had come to staff them with professionals who would stimulate active, efficient libraries on their communities. Libraries already promised continued to remain built until 1923, but after 1919 all financial support was turned into library education.

When Andrew Carnegie died in 1919 at age 84, he had given nearly one-fourth of his life to causes in which he believed. His gifts to various charities totalled nearly $350 million, almost 90 % of his fortune. Carnegie regarded all education as a way to enhance people’s lives, and libraries provided undoubtedly one of his main tools to assist you to Americans create a brighter future. Questions for Reading 1 1. How did progress and industrialization affect Carnegie, both as he was young, and later on? 2. The amount formal education did Carnegie have? What factors contributed to his involvement with books and reading? 3. What did Carnegie believe wealthy people ought to do with their money? Why did he feel that? Can you agree? 4. How did supporting libraries fit with Carnegie’s past and his awesome beliefs? Reading 1 was compiled from George S. Bobinski, Carnegie Libraries (Chicago: American Library Association, 1969); Andrew Carnegie, Autobiography of Andrew Carnegie, reprint (Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1920 1986); Barry Sears, To the Trail of Carnegie Libraries, Antiques and Collecting (February 1994); Gerald R. Shields, Recycling Buildings for Libraries, Public Libraries (March/April 1994).